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汛期尾矿库溃坝,应该这样防范!
发布时间:2020-08-10    浏览次数:587

尾矿库是指筑坝拦截谷口或围地构成的,用来堆存金属或非金属矿山进行矿石选别后排出的尾矿或其他工业废渣的场所。
 
尾矿库是一个具有高势能的人造泥石流危险源,存在溃坝危险,一旦失事,容易造成重特大事故。

WEIKUANGKUYIBANYOUWEIKUANGDUICUNXITONG、WEIKUANGKUPAIHONGXITONG、WEIKUANGKUHUISHUIXITONGDENGJIBUFENZUCHENG,FENWEIYIXIAJIZHONGLEIXING:

 

尾矿库的分类

山谷型尾矿库是指在山谷谷口处筑坝形成的尾矿库。它的特点是初期坝相对较短,坝体工程量较小,后期尾矿堆坝相对较易管理维护,当堆坝较高时,可获得较大的库容;但当汇水面积较大时,排洪设施工程量相对较大。我国现有的大、中型尾矿库大多属于这种类型。

傍山型尾矿库是指在山坡脚下依山筑坝所围成的尾矿库。它的特点是初期坝相对较长,初期坝和后期尾矿堆坝工程量较大。由于该类尾矿库尾矿水的澄清条件和防洪控制条件较差,因此管理、维护相对就比较复杂。国内位于低山丘陵地区的小矿山常选用这种类型的尾矿库。

平地型尾矿库是指在平缓地形周边筑坝围成的尾矿库。其特点是初期坝和后期尾矿堆坝工程量大,维护管理比较麻烦;国内平原或沙漠戈壁地区常采用这类尾矿库。例如山东省的一些金矿的尾矿库。

截河型尾矿库是指截取一段河床,在其上、下游两端分别筑坝形成的尾矿库。它的特点是不占农田;库区汇水面积不太大,但上游的汇水面积通常很大,库内和库上游都要设置排水系统,配置较复杂,规模庞大。这种类型的尾矿库维护管理比较复杂,国内采用的不多。

溃坝原因

洪水漫顶

HONGSHUIMANDINGSHIZAOCHENGWEIKUANGKUKUIBADEZHONGYAOYUANYIN。YOUYUPAIHONGSHESHIDESHEJI、SHIGONGHUOGUANLIBUNENGMANZUYAOQIU,WANGWANGHUIZAOCHENGWEIKUANGKUPAIHONGNENGLIBUZU、PAIHONGSHESHICHUXIANDUSAIKUATA,XUNQISHIDALIANGYUSHUIYONGRUKUNEI,JIYOUKENENGDAOZHIHONGSHUIMANDING,SHIBATIKUIJUE。

 

坝体裂缝

BATIDEMOUXIEXIXIAOLIEFENGYOUKENENGCHENGWEIBATIJIZHONGSHENLOUDETONGDAO,LIEFENGDECHUXIANYEKENENGSHIBATIHUATADEYUZHAO。LIEFENGCHANSHENGDEZHUYAOYUANYINYOU:BAJICHENGZAILIBUZUDAOZHIJUBUBATITANTAKAILIE、BATIBIANPOJIDUANMIANCHICUNSHEJIBUDANG、BATISHIGONGZHILIANGCHADENG。

 

渗透破坏

ZHENGCHANGWENDINGDESHENLIUKEYIJIASUWEIKUANGKUGANTANDEXINGCHENGHEWEISHADEGUJIE,TIGAOBATIDEWENDINGANQUANXING。RUOBATIMEIYOUJINXINGHELIDESHEJIJISHIGONG,WEIGENJUWENDINGYUNXINGYAOQIUSHEZHIBATIPAISHENCENG,JIANGHUIZAOCHENGBATIJINRUNXIANPIANGAO,YOUKENENGYINFAKUIBASHIGU。

 

坝体滑坡

YOUXIEBATIHUAPOSHITUFAXINGDE,YOUXIEZESHIXIANYOUXIXIAOLIEFENGKAISHI,RANHOULIEFENGMANMANKUODA,ZUIZHONGDAOZHIHUAPO,FASHENGKUIBASHIGU。HUAPOANHUAPODEXINGZHIKEFENWEIJIANQIEXINGHUAPO、SULIUXINGHUAPOHEYEHUAXINGHUAPO;ANXINGZHUANGKEFENWEIYUANHUHUAPO、ZHEXIANHUAPOHEHUNHEHUAPO。

防范措施

加强安全监测

WEIKUANGKUKUIBASHIGUCHANGZAIXUNQIFASHENG,CISHIYINGJIADAJIANCELIDU:WEIKUANGKUGANTANSHIFOUYIJINGXINGCHENG,GANTANZHANGDUSHIFOUYUSHEJIYAOQIUXIANGFUHE,PAISHUIGOUZHUWUSHIFOUWANHAOTONGCHANG,KUQUZHOUBIANYOUWUYINFADIZHIZAIHAIDEBULITIAOJIAN,NISHILIULANJIESHESHISHIFOUWANHAOYOUXIAO。WEIKUANGKUBATIBIANPOSHIFOUFUHESHEJIYAOQIU,SHIFOUCHANSHENGLONGQIHUOZHETAXIAN;BATIBIAOMIANSHIFOUYOUCHONGSHUADEXIANXIANG,YOUWULIEFENG。RUOCHANSHENGLIEFENG,YINGLIJILEJIELIEFENGDEXINGZHUANG、ZOUXIANG,BINGFENXIQICHANSHENGDEYUANYINHEFAZHANQUSHI。

 

采取预警行动

DANGQIYEFAXIANBATICUNZAIHONGSHUIMANDING、PAISHUIGUANTANTADENGWEIXIANSHI,YINGJISHIBAOGAOXIANGGUANANQUANJIANGUANBUMEN、DANGDIZHENGFUBUMENHESHEJIDANWEI,JINLIPAICHUXIANQING。RUGUOXIANQINGBUDUANKUODA,YINGZUZHIWEIKUANGKUXIAYOURENYUANSHUSANZHUANYI,FANGZHISHIGUKUODA,BIMIANRENYUANSHANGWANG。

 

开展隐患排查治理专项行动

GEDANWEIYINGGENJUGUOJIAXIANGGUANBUMENDEYAOQIU,ZAIWEIKUANGKUSUOZAIDIZHENGFUDETONGYIZUZHILINGDAOXIAKAIZHANZHUANXIANGZHENGZHIHEYINHUANPAICHAZHILIZHUANXIANGXINGDONG。

 

做好汛期防洪工作

KAIZHANQUANMIAN、XIZHIDEWEIKUANGKUFANGXUNANQUANJIANCHA,TEBIESHICENGJINGFASHENGGUOHUAPO、NISHILIUDENGDIZHIZAIHAIDEZHONGDIANDIQU。JIAQIANGDUIPAIHONG、XIEHONGSHESHIDEWEIHU,BAOZHENGWEIKUANGKUDEDIAOHONGKURONGHEGANTANZHANGDUFUHEBIAOZHUN,DUIYISHINANYIZHENGGAIDAOWEIDEYINHUANJINXINGZHONGDIANXUNCHA,ZHIDINGYINGJICUOSHI。

 

五个“必须”

1、BIXUQUEBAOQUANYUANPEIXUNHEGE,“SANXIANGGANGWEIRENYUAN”CHIZHENGSHANGGANGSHENGCHANJINGYINGDANWEIBIXUDUICONGYERENYUANJINXINGANQUANSHENGCHANJIAOYUHEPEIXUN。WEIJINGPEIXUNHEGEDERENYUAN,BUDESHANGGANGZUOYE。

2、BIXUQUEBAOPAIHONG、PAISHENSHESHISHEJIGUIFAN、YUNXINGKEKAOPAIHONGSHESHISHIWEIKUANGKUBIBEIDEANQUANSHESHI,TADEANQUANXINGZHIJIEGUANXIDAOWEIKUANGKUFANGHONGANQUAN。PAISHENSHESHIKEJISHIJIANGDIKUNEISHUIWEIHEJINRUNXIANMAISHEN,YOUXIAOFANGFANSHENLIUPOHUAI。

3、BIXUXIANQIXIAOCHUBINGKUANQUANYINHUAN,YANJINWEIKU、XIANKUSHENGCHANYUNXINGWEIKUANGKUKEFENWEIWEIKU、XIANKU、BINGKU、ZHENGCHANGKU。DUIWEIKUXUCAIQUYINGJICUOSHI;DUIXIANKUBIXULIJITINGCHAN,JISHIXIAOCHUXIANQING;DUIBINGKUBIXUXIANQIZHENGGAI,JISHIXIAOCHUANQUANYINHUAN。

4、BIXUANSHEJIJISHIBIKU,ZHEIZHUYAOSHIZHISHENGCHANJINGYINGDANWEIYINGANGUIDINGSHIXIANJISHILVXINGBIKUCHENGXU,YANGEJINXINGWEIKUANGKUZHENGZHIHEPAIHONGXITONGZHENGZHI。

5、BIXUJIANLIYINGJILIANDONGJIZHI,QUEBAOYINGJIZHUANGBEI、WUZIJIYINGJIYANLIANDAOWEIZHENGFU、SHENGCHANJINGYINGDANWEIHEWEIKUANGKUZHOUBIANCUNZHENYAOJIANLIYINGJILIANDONGJIZHI,QUEBAOZAIWEIKUANGKUFASHENGSHIGUHUOXIANQINGSHINENGGOUJISHIQIDONGYINGJIYUAN。

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